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I. Introduction: The Diadochic Kingdoms
No area of Western history is quite as recondite as that of the Diadochic empires, the successor-kingdoms that sprang up in the wake of Alexander the Great’s meteoric campaigns (334 – 323 BC) to subdue Asia under militaristic Hellenism.  Educated people know that the unity of Alexander’s Imperium, ever tenuous and improvisatory, broke down immediately on…

The Russian Empire, which lasted from 1721 to 1917, spanned an enormous territory of almost 14 million square miles (36 million sq km) across the eastern portion of Europe and the continent of Asia. Ruled by an autocratic government, with its capital at St. Petersburg, its 170 million people were of over 100 different ethnic backgrounds, comprised primarily of Christians,…

The original Amber Room was in the Catherine Palace: it was a chamber with amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors.  It was created from 1701 to 1709 for the Prussian King Wilhelm I, who in turn gave it to Peter the Great (r. 1694-1725) in 1716 to form a Prussian-Russian alliance against Sweden.  The Amber Room remained there…

The Russian Empire was one of the largest empires in the world, spanning almost 14 square miles (36 million sq km) across eastern portion of Europe and the continent of Asia.
The Russian Empire’s population was 170 million people of over 100 different ethnic and religious backgrounds.
The Russian Empire emerged as one of the great world powers and played a leading…

1682                Brothers Ivan V and Peter I crowned czars
1695-1700      War with Ottoman Empire
1696                Ivan V dies, leaving Peter I as the sole czar
1696-97           Peter’s grand tour of Europe
1700-21           The Great Northern War
1703                St. Petersburg founded
1710-13           War with Ottoman Empire
1713                St. Petersburg declared capital of Russia
1721                Russia declared an Empire
1722-23          War with Persia
1725                Catherine I crowned Empress of Russian Empire
1727                Peter…

As the title for today's lecture in the context of “The Meaning of History," I have chosen “The Beyond and Its Parousia." You know, of course, where the terms come from: Plato's Republic(508-509). “Beyond"–the Greek term is epekeina–is Plato's general sym­bolism for the divine reality that is, the one beyond all the reality of the gods of the cosmos. He…